Professor Aghaji obtained her medical degree from the University of Nigeria in 1982 and completed her residency training in Community Medicine at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. She is a fellow of the West African College of Medicine.
She has taught medical students both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, and has conducted research in various aspects of community medicine, with publications in national and international journals. She is a former Head of Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus and a member of the Senate of the University of Nigeria Nsukka.